Explore The glorious period of rich Indian culture
In this article we will go through the major phases of Indian history from ancient India to modern India. This history is important for several reasons. It tells us how, when and where people developed the cultures in our country.
From ancient Indian discovery to starting agriculture which made life settle and secure for livelihood hood. We come to know how they took to farming, spinning, weaving, metal working and so on. How they founded villages, cities, and finally large kingdom. People are not considered civilized unless they know writing, the different forms of writing prevalent in India today are all derived from the ancient scripts.
This history of India is interesting because India proved to be a crucible of numerous races. The pre-Aryans, The Indo-Aryans, The Greeks, The Scythian’s, The Hunas, The Turks and etc. Made India their home. Each ethnic group contributed its part to the making of Indian culture.
Now let’s dive into the major phases of Ancient Indian history to Modern Indian history.
1. Construction of Ancient India : The Geographical setting
The history of India cannot be understood without some knowledge of its geography. The Indian subcontinent is as large in area as Europe without Russia. Its Total area is 4,202,500 square kilometres. The subcontinent is divided into three countries: India, Pakistan, Bangladesh. india has 650,000,000 people, Pakistan has 50,000,000 people, and Bangladesh has 75,000,000.
Some states of india are larger than European countries. For instance, Bihar is larger in area as England and Madhya Pradesh is larger than several European countries.
2. The Stone Age : Palaeolithic Age
Man has been living in India roughly from 50,000 B.C. He used tools of unpolished, undressed rough stones which have been found in south India and in Soan or Sohan river valley in Pakistan.
The Old Stone or Palaeolithic age in India is divided into three phases according to nature of the Stone tools used by the people and nature of change of climate. The first phase is early or Lower Palaeolithic, the second Middle Palaeolithic, the third Upper Palaeolithic.
3. The harappan civilization
It arose in the north western part of the Indian subcontinent. It is called harappan because this civilization was discovered first in 1921 at the modern site of Harappa situated in the province of West Punjab in Pakistan. The harappan culture covered parts of Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan, Gujarat, Rajasthan and the fringes of Western Uttar Pradesh.
4. Advents of the Aryans and the Age of the Rig Veda
Aryans first appeared in Iran, where Indo-Iranians lived for a long time. Their after the Aryans came to India in several waves . The earliest wave is represented by Rig Vedic peoples, who appeared in subcontinent in about 1500 B.C.
We know about Aryans in India from the Rig Veda, which is the earliest specimen of the Indo-European language. The Rig Veda is collection of player offer to Agni, Indra, Mitra, Varuna and other Gods by various families of poets and sages.
5. The Magadhan Empire : Mahajanapadas
In the age of Buddha we find 16 large states called Mahajanapadas. They were mostly situated in north of the Vindhyas and extended from North-West frontier to Bihar.
Magadha came into prominence under the leadership of Bimbisara, who belonged to Haryana dynasty.
6. The age of the Mauryas
The Maurya dynasty was founded by Chandragupta Maurya. Justin, a greek writer, says they Chandragupta overran the whole of India with an army of 600,000.
Chandragupta administration maintained 600,000 foot soldiers, 30,000 cavalry and 9000 elephants. Another source tells us that Mauryas maintained 8,000 chariots.
7. The age Satavahanas
The most important and the native successor of the Mauryas in Deccan and in central India were the Satavahanas.
Satavahanas belong to the first century B.C, when they defeated the kanvas and established their powers in parts of central India. They set up their power in upper Godavari and extended over Karnataka and Andhra.
8. The Gupta Empire
The first important king of Gupta dynasty was Chandragupta. He started the Gupta era in A.D. 319-20, which marked the date of his accession.
The original kingdom of the Gupta comprised Uttar Pradesh and Bihar at the end of third century A.D.
9. Civilization in Eastern India
A region is considered to be civilized if its people know the art of writing, having a system for collecting taxes and maintaining order.
The period from the fourth to the seventh century is remarkable for the diffusion of an advance rural economy, formation of state system and delineation of social classes in eastern Bengal Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Assam.
10. Legacy in Science and Civilization
In spite of existence of towns of harappan times and again for about 1,000 years from the Maurya to the Gupta period the ancient civilization was not as urban as of Greek and Rome.
It would be wrong to think that Indians did not make any progress. The Indian craftsman were great experts in dyeing and making various kinds of colours.
Similarly the Indians were experts in the art of making steel. This craft was developed first in India. No other country in the World could manufacture such steel swords as those made by Indian craftsmen.
India made important contribution to science by the third century B.C. Mathematics, astronomy and medical began to develop. In the field of mathematics Indians made three distinct contributions, the notation system, the decimal system and the use of zero.